A GIS or Geographical Information Systems captures, stores, analyzes, manages, and presents data that is linked to a location. A GIS is a method by which specialist mapping software is applied to the areas of remote sensing, land surveying, aerial photography, photogrammetry, and many tools can be used together to make up the specific GIS solution that is needed for a specific project.
A GIS is an information system that integrates, stores, edits, analyzes, shares, and displays geographic information. GIS applications are tools that allow the user to create interactive queries, analyze spatial information, edit data, maps, and present the results of all these operations.
GIS is a powerful tool for collecting and collating datasets enabling consistency and continuity. GIS is able to process varying types and amounts of data. It allows the import of various monitoring data sets and statistical analysis of the data.
GIS technology can be used for resource management, asset management, archaeology, environmental impact assessment, urban planning, cartography, criminology, geographic history, marketing, logistics and other purposes. For example, GIS might allow emergency planners to easily calculate emergency response times (i.e. logistics) in the event of a natural disaster, GIS might be used to find wetlands that need protection from pollution, or GIS can be used by a company to site a new business location to take advantage of a previously under-served market.